When we go to the doctor, we get our blood draw, we can tell a lot about our health from a blood test. A healthy person’s blood should be about 45% red blood cells, 55% plasma and about 1% white cells. Platelets are a very tiny percentage. What is the chemistry of our blood and why is it so important to test? There are multiple tests that your doctor may want you to take.
  • Red Blood Cells – carries oxygen throughout the body.
  • White Blood Cells – helps fight infections and pathogens.
  • Platelets – cells that help stop bleeding when you get a cut.
  • Plasma – is a liquid that carries nutrients, proteins, and hormones throughout the body.
Below is a list of some of the tests that your doctor may ask for, and the normal range for the values.

CBC Test - “Complete Blood Count”

WBC Count – (white blood count) Is a count of white blood cells in the blood. If the white blood count is elevated if it could indicate that there might be an infection somewhere in the body.

Normal Range: 3.80 – 11.00

RBC Count -RBC (red blood cell) erythrocyte count. We have millions of red blood cells in our bodies, and this test measures the number of RBCs in a specific amount of blood. It helps us determine the total number of RBCs and gives us an idea of their lifespan, but it does not indicate where problems originate. If there are irregularities, other tests will be required.

Normal Range: 4.30 – 5.90

Hemoglobin – Hemoglobin (Hgb) Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which makes bright blood red. More importantly, hemoglobin delivers oxygen from the lungs to the entire body; then it returns to the lungs with carbon dioxide, which we exhale. Healthy hemoglobin levels vary by gender. Low levels of hemoglobin may indicate anemia.

Normal Range: 13.7 – 17.5

Hematocrit % – Hematocrit (Hct) Useful for diagnosing anemia, this test determines how much of the total blood volume in the body consists of red blood cells.

Normal Range: 39.0 – 55.0

MCV fl – Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) This test measures the average volume of red blood cells or the average amount of space each red blood cell fills. Irregularities could indicate anemia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome.

Normal Range: 80.0 – 102.0

MCH pg – Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) This test measures the average amount of hemoglobin in the typical red blood cell. Results that are too high could signal anemia, while those too low may indicate a nutritional deficiency.

Normal Range: 25.0 – 35.0

MCHC g/dl – Stands for Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin. It is the average concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood.

Normal Range: 31.0 – 37.0

RDW-CV % – Is a test that measures the size and volume of your red blood cells. If the red blood cells are too large, it could indicate a health problem.

Normal Range: 11.0 – 16.0

Platelet Count – Are tiny blood cells to help the body form clots to stop bleeding. If your platelet count is low, it could indicate a wide range of health problems.

Normal Range: 150 – 420

MPV fl – (mean platelet volume) – is a measurement of the average size of platelets in the blood.

Normal Range: 9.4 – 12.4

Neutrophil – is a measurement of the number of neutrophil Granulocytes in the blood. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cells.

Normal Range: 1.90 – 8.00

NRBC – (nucleated red blood cells) –Is a blood cell that has a nucleus. If NRBC is found in the circulation of the blood could indicate severe disease.

Normal Range: 0.00 – 0.12

Neutrophil % – This test measures the percent values of in the blood.

Normal Range: 40.0 – 76.0

Immature Granulocytes % – Immature Granulocytes are white blood cells that only are present when there is an infection or an indication of infection in the bone marrow.

Normal Range: 0.0 – 1.0

Lymphocyte % – Measures the percentage of lymphocytes, which are white blood cells that would include B-Cells, T-Cells and NK cells. Low percent could indicate HIV-AIDS or bone marrow failure. A high percent could indicate a viral infection, leukemia or lymphoma.

Normal Range: 20.0 – 44.0

Monocyte % – Measures the percentage of monocytes, which are white blood cells that move from the blood into the tissues where they become macrophages.

Normal Range: 5.0 – 13.0

Eosinophil % – Measures the percent of eosinophil which are white blood cells that fight parasitic infections.

Normal Range: 0.0 – 6.0

Basophil % – Measures the percentage of a type of white blood cell basophil, which helps with allergy responses.

Normal Range: 0.0 – 2.0

Lymphocyte – Measures a type of white blood cells made in your bone marrow, some lymphocytes will enter the bloodstream, the majority of the lymphocytes will go through the lymphatic system to become T-cells while a small amount will stay in the bone marrow where they become B-Cells.

Normal Range: 1.40 – 4.80

Monocyte – Measures a type of white blood cells made in the bone marrow, which circulate in the bloodstream for 1 to 3 days and then move into tissues where they become macrophages and dendritic cells.

Normal Range: 0.10 – 0.80

Eosinophil – Measures a type of white blood cell that helps fight parasitic infection, cancer, and allergic reactions.

Normal Range: 0.00 – 0.50

Basophil – Measures a type of white blood cell that helps with allergy responses.

Normal Range: 0.00 – 1.00

Chemistry Panel (metabolic test) (CMP) - this test looks at the chemistry of the blood.

  • Albumin – measures the protein in the blood. Normal range: 3.9 to 5.0g/dL
  • Alkaline phosphatase – measures levels of this enzyme in the blood (ALP) if the levels are abnormal could indicate a problem with the liver, bones, or gallbladder. Normal range: 44 to 147 IU/L
  • ALT – (alanine aminotransferase) is an enzyme found in the liver. If liver cells are damaged, they release ALT into the bloodstream. If the ALT levels are high, it can indicate that you might have a problem with the liver. Normal range: 8 to 37 IU/L
  • AST – (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme found mainly in the liver as well as in the muscles. If the liver is damaged, it will release this enzyme (AST) high levels of AST in the blood could indicate hepatitis, cirrhosis, mononucleosis as well as other liver diseases and problems with the heart and pancreas. Normal range: Normal range: 10 to 34 IU/L
  • BUN – (blood urea nitrogen) is a test to give info on how the kidneys and the liver are functioning. Normal range: 7 to 20 mg/dL
  • Calcium – 99% of your body’s calcium is stored in your bones; the remaining calcium is in the bloodstream. The levels tested will indicate if the calcium is too high or too low. This could mean there are problems like bone disease, thyroid disease, kidney disease or other ailments. Normal range: 8.5 to 10.9 mg/dL
  • Chloride – Is a type of electrolyte. It helps balance the pH levels in the body. Normal range: 96 to 106 mmol/L
  • CO2 – (carbon dioxide) measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. If too high or too low can indicate a potential problem like kidney disease, lung disease, and high blood pressure. Normal range: 20 to 29 mmol/L
  • Creatinine – Is waste from your blood. It comes from the breaking down of proteins and muscles in the body. The kidneys remove it. High levels of creatinine could be a sign of kidney disease. Normal range: 0.8 to 1.4 mg/dL
  • Glucose – This test measures glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) levels can be a sign of diabetes; this can cause blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, and other health-related problems. Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) levels can lead to brain damage and other health-related issues. Normal range: 100 mg/dL
  • Potassium – Is a type of electrolyte that helps nerves to function and helps muscles contract. It also helps the heart beat stay regular. It also helps offset sodium as it relates to your blood pressure. Normal range: 3.7 to 5.2 mEq/L
  • Sodium – Is a type of electrolyte. If sodium levels are too high (hypernatremia) it can cause excess thirst, diarrhea, infrequent urination and vomiting. If the sodium levels are too low (hyponatremia) it can cause confusion, fatigue, muscle twitching, weakness. Normal range: 136 to 144 mEq/L
  • Total bilirubin – Bilirubin is an orange-yellow pigment found in bile that is made by the liver. When bilirubin levels are high, it is an indication that the red blood cells are breaking down at an unusual rate or that the liver isn’t breaking down the waste properly and removing the bilirubin from the blood. This test helps doctors diagnose bile duct and liver issues to include cirrhosis, hepatitis, and gallstones. It can also help to diagnose if you have sickle cell disease. Normal range: 0.2 to 1.9 mg/dL
  • Total Protein – This test measures the amount of albumin and globulin proteins in the body. Albumin protein helps to keep fluid from leaking out of the blood vessels. The globulin protein helps the immune system function properly. If the levels of this test are not in the normal range, it could indicate health problems such as edema (swelling caused by extra fluid in your tissues), fatigue, kidney or liver disease. Normal range: 6.3 to 7.9 g/dL

••• Note: Electrolytes are minerals with an electrical charge that helps balance the chemicals in the body related to acids and bases.

Other Blood Tests

  • C – Reactive Protein – is a protein found in blood plasma. When levels rise indicates inflammation in the body. Normal Range: <1.0 mg/L
  • HbA1c/Glycosylated hemoglobin – This test measures your blood sugar over weeks or months. Normal Range: <5.7%
  • Homocysteine – This test is to find if there are deficiencies in B12 or folate. A doctor might order this test if the patient has had a heart attack or stroke. Normal Range: 4 to 14 umols/L

Cholesterol Test

The cholesterol test measures the different kinds of fats in the blood. Cholesterol is produced mostly in the liver. Our bodies need some fat, but too much bad cholesterol (LDL and triglycerides) is the blood is not healthy. Good cholesterol is called HDL, the HDL binds to the LDL and takes it back to the liver to be delivered to bile.

  • Total Cholesterol –  measures both LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Normal Range: <200 mg/dL
  • LDL Cholesterol – (low-density lipoprotein) named as BAD cholesterol, too much LDL can damage your arteries, and lead to heart disease. High LDL levels can also increase your risk for a stroke. Normal Range: <100mg/dL
  • HDL Cholesterol – (high-density lipoprotein) named as GOOD cholesterol. It takes excess cholesterol out of the arteries to the liver where it can be sent to bile to be removed from the body. Normal Range: >60 mg/dL is best to help prevent heart disease.
  • Triglycerides – are also known as lipids. Triglycerides are a type of fat that is found in the blood. Unused calories are converted to triglycerides and stored in your fat cells. When the body needs energy between eating hormones release triglycerides to be used. Fasting Normal Range: <150 mg/dL
  • Cholesterol ratio – Is a ratio that divides HDL cholesterol into your total cholesterol. The lower the ratio indicates a lower risk of heart disease. Normal Range: 3.5 to 1

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